5. #3503e Hospital Harm – Severe Hypoglycemia, Last Updated: Nov 09, 2020.
    6. Classen, D. C., Jaser, L., & Budnitz, D. S. (2010). Adverse drug events among hospitalized Medicare patients: Epidemiology and national estimates from a new approach to surveillance. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf, 36(1), 12-21.
    7. American Diabetes Association. Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Glucose). 2015; Accessed August 20, 2018.
    8. Nirantharakumar K, Marshall T, Kennedy A, Narendran P, Hemming K, Coleman JJ. Hypoglycaemia is associated with increased length of stay and mortality in people with diabetes who are hospitalized. Diabet Med. 2012;29(12):e445-448.
    9. #3533e Hospital Harm – Severe Hyperglycemia, Last Updated: Nov 09, 2020.
    10. Pasquel FJ, Spiegelman R, McCauley M, et al. Hyperglycemia During Total Parenteral Nutrition: An Important Marker of Poor Outcome and Mortality in Hospitalized Patients. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(4):739-741
    11. Rady MY, Johnson DJ, Patel BM, Larson JS, Helmers RA. Influence of Individual Characteristics on Outcome of Glycemic Control in Intensive Care Unit Patients With or Without Diabetes Mellitus. Mayo Clin Proc. 2005;80(12):1558-1567.
    12. Umpierrez GE, Isaacs SD, Bazargan N, You X, Thaler LM, Kitabchi AE. Hyperglycemia: An Independent Marker of In-Hospital Mortality in Patients with Undiagnosed Diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87(3):978-982.
    13. Falciglia M, Freyberg RW, Almenoff PL, D´Alessio DA, Render ML. Hyperglycemia-Related Mortality in Critically Ill Patients Varies with Admission Diagnosis. Crit Care Med. 2009;37(12):3001-3009.
    14. Lee LJ, Emons MF, Martin SA, et al. Association of Blood Glucose Levels with In-Hospital Mortality and 30-Day Readmission in Patients Undergoing Invasive Cardiovascular Surgery. Curr Med Res Opin. 2012;28(10):1657-1665.
    15. King JT, Jr., Goulet JL, Perkal MF, Rosenthal RA. Glycemic Control and Infections in Patients with Diabetes Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery. Ann Surg. 2011;253(1):158-165.
    16. Jackson RS, Amdur RL, White JC, Macsata RA. Hyperglycemia is Associated with Increased Risk of Morbidity and Mortality after Colectomy for Cancer. J Am Coll Surg. 2012;214(1):68-80.
    17. Umpierrez GE, Hellman R, Korytkowski MT, et al. Management of Hyperglycemia in Hospitalized Patients in Non-Critical Care Setting: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97(1):16-38.
    18. Swanson CM, Potter DJ, Kongable GL, Cook CB. Update on Inpatient Glycemic Control in Hospitals in the United States. Endocr Pract. 2011;17(6):853-861.
    19. Cook CB, Kongable GL, Potter DJ, Abad VJ, Leija DE, Anderson M. Inpatient Glucose Control: A Glycemic Survey of 126 U.S. Hospitals. J Hosp Med. 2009;4(9):E7-E14.
    20. Matheny ME, Shubina M, Kimmel ZM, Pendergrass ML, Turchin A. Treatment Intensification and Blood Glucose Control among Hospitalized Diabetic Patients. J Gen Intern Med. 2008;23(2):184-189.
    21. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2020. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services; 2020.
    22. Klonoff DC, Messler J, Umpierrez G, Peng L, Booth R, Crowe J, Garret V, McFarland R, Pasquel F. Association Between Achieving Inpatient Glycemic Control and Clinical Outcomes in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19: A Multicenter, Retrospective Hospital-Based Analysis. Diabetes Care 2021;44:1-8;
    23. 15. Diabetes Care in the Hospital: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2020. American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care Jan 2020, 43 (Supplement 1) S193-S202; DOI: 10.2337/dc20-S015
    24. Newsom R, Patty C, Camarena E, Gray T, Sawyer R, Brown B, McFarland R. Safely Converting From Sliding Scale to Basal Bolus Insulin Across an Entire Medical Center via Implementation of the eGlycemic Management System. American Diabetes Associa- tion Scientific Sessions. June 2017.


MAR-0000448 Rev 2.0